What is Cryptography? Definition of Cryptography, Cryptography Meaning - The Economic Times

2021.03.17 13:45

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Definition of 'Cryptography'

Definition: Cryptography is associated with the process of converting ordinary plain text into unintelligible text and vice-versa. It is a method of storing and transmitting data in a particular form so that only those for whom it is intended can read and process it. Cryptography not only protects data from theft or alteration, but can also be used for user authentication.

Description: Earlier cryptography was effectively synonymous with encryption but nowadays cryptography is mainly based on mathematical theory and computer science practice.

Modern cryptography concerns with:

Confidentiality - Information cannot be understood by anyone

Integrity - Information cannot be altered.

Non-repudiation - Sender cannot deny his/her intentions in the transmission of the information at a later stage

Authentication - Sender and receiver can confirm each

Cryptography is used in many applications like banking transactions cards, computer passwords, and e- commerce transactions.

Three types of cryptographic techniques used in general .

1. Symmetric-key cryptography

2. Hash functions.

3. Public-key cryptography

Symmetric-key Cryptography: Both the sender and receiver share a single key. The sender uses this key to encrypt plaintext and send the cipher text to the receiver. On the other side the receiver applies the same key to decrypt the message and recover the plain text.

Public-Key Cryptography: This is the most revolutionary concept in the last 300-400 years. In Public-Key Cryptography two related keys (public and private key) are used. Public key may be freely distributed, while its paired private key, remains a secret. The public key is used for encryption and for decryption private key is used.

Hash Functions: No key is used in this algorithm. A fixed-length hash value is computed as per the plain text that makes it impossible for the contents of the plain text to be recovered. Hash functions are also used by many operating systems to encrypt passwords. PREV DEFINITION Cross-site scripting
Read More NEXT DEFINITION Cyber Security
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Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol developed by Netscape for establishing an encrypted link between a web server and a browser. SSL is an industry standard which transmits private data securely over the Internet by encrypting it. It is used by many websites to protect the online transactions of their customers. Description: SSL functions around a cryptographic system which uses three keys t

Cross-site Scripting

Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability. It is accounted for almost 85% of all website security vulnerabilities. Description: Cross-site scripting (XSS) exploits the 'same-origin-policy' concept of web applications to allow hackers to extract information from the system. How it works: Attackers conduct script injection that runs at the client side and is sometimes

Dns Spoofing

DNS Spoofing is a type of computer attack wherein a user is forced to navigate to a fake website disguised to look like a real one, with the intention of diverting traffic or stealing credentials of the users. Spoofing attacks can go on for a long period of time without being detected and can cause serious security issues. Description: Domain Name Server (DNS) resolves the alphabetical domain nam


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Denial-of-service Attack

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